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Full text of "What vivisection has done for humanity"

What Vivisection Has Done 
for Humanity 



W. W. KEEN, M.D., LL.D. 

PHILADELPHIA 



DEFENSE OF RESEARCH 
PAMPHLET XIV 

Issued by the Council on Defense of Medical Research 
of the American Medical Association 



'"The humanity which would prevent human suffering is a deeper 
and truer humanity than the humanity which would save paiu or 
death to animals." — Charles W. Eliot. 



CHICAGO 

American Medical Association 

Five Hundred and Thirty-five Dearborn Avenue 

1910 




I 

mer 
tral 

F — . .-^..^nx uipciuiicuiauuu auu xuoercuiosis, Dy L)v. 

E. L. Trudeau, Saranac Lake, N. Y. 16 pages. 

Pamphlet III. — The Role of Animal Experimentation in the Diag- 
nosis of Disease, by Dr. M. J. Rosenau, Washington, D. C. 8 pages. 

Pamphlet IV. — Animal Experimentation and Cancer, by Dr. 
James Ewing, New York. 12 pages. 

Pamphlet V. — The Ethics of Animal Experimentation, by Prof. 
J. R. Angell, Chicago. 8 pages. 

Pamphlet VI. — Animal Experimentation : The Protection it Af- 
fords to Animals Themselves and its Value to the Live-Stock 
Industry of the Country, by Dr. V. A. Moore, Ithaca, N. Y. 20 
pages. 

Pamphlet VII. — The History, Prevalence and Prevention of 
Rabies, and its Relation to Animal Experimentation, by Dr. L. 
Frothingham. Boston. 16 pages. 

Pamphlet VIII. — Importance of Animal Experimentation in the 
Development of Knowledge of Dysentery, Cholera and Typhoid 
Fever, by Dr. M. W. Richardson, Boston. 8 pages. 

Pamphlet IX. — The Fruits of Medical Research with the Aid ot 
Anesthesia and Asepticism, by Dr. Charles W. Eliot, Boston. 16 
pages. 

Pamphlet X. — Animal Experimentation in Relation to our Knowl- 
edge of Secretions, especially Internal Secretions, by Dr. S. J. 
Meltzer, New York. 32 pages. 

Pamphlet XI. — Animal Experimentation in Relation to Protozoan 
Tropical Diseases, by Dr. Harry T. Marshall, Charlottesville, Va. 
20 pages. 

Pamphlet XII. — Modern Antiseptic Surgery and the Role of 
Experiment in its Discovery and Development, by Dr. W. W. Keen, 
Philadelphia. 20 pages. 

Pamphlet XIII. — Animal Experimentation in Relation to Prac- 
tical Medical Knowledge of the Circulation, by Dr. Joseph Erlanger, 
Madison, Wis. 40 pages. 

Pamphlet XIV. — What Vivisection Has Done for Humanity, by 
Dr. W. W. Keen, Philadelphia. 16 pages. 



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AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 



53r> Dearborn Avenue 



Chicago. Illinois 



What Vivisection Has Done 
for Humanity 



W. W. KEEN, M.D., LL.D. 

PHILADELPHIA 






Pvty,pVSjlX 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2012 with funding from 
Duke University Libraries 



http://www.archive.org/details/whatvivisectionhOOkeen 



WHAT VIVISECTION HAS DONE FOR 
HUMANITY* 



W. W. KEEN, M.D., LL.D. 

PHILADELPHIA 



PREFACE 

It is not too much to say that Dr. Keen, of 
Philadelphia, is universally regarded to-day in 
the world of surgery as the foremost of living 
American surgeons. The leading universities 
and academies of science of the United States, 
. England, France" and Germany have honored 
him with their degrees and honorary titles, 
and the published works on surgery, written 
and edited by him, are accepted as standard 
authorities by the profession in which he has 
gained such eminent distinction. Dr. Keen is, 
therefore, as well, if not better, qualified to 
to present the advantages of vivisection as any 
American writer on the subject. — The Edi- 
tors of the Ladies' Home Journal. 

In 1905 I had made all my arrangements to do an 
operation on a Thursday morning. Among my assist- 
ants was Dr. C. On Wednesday morning he telephoned 
and said he was not feeling very well and that I had 
better engage some one to take his place. This I did, 
giving no special thought to the matter, supposing it 
was an unimportant passing illness. At ten o'clock 
that same night I was startled by a telephone message 
that if I wished to see Dr. C. alive I must come at once ! 
In a few minutes I was there, but he was already un- 
conscious. As I sat beside him and his weeping young 
wife, who soon expected to become a mother, how I 
longed for some means by which the hand of death 
could be stayed; but he died in less than thirty-six 

* Reprinted, by permission of the Editor, from the Ladies' Home 
Journal, April, 1910. 



28554 



hours from the time that he was seized with cerebro- 
spinal meningitis. 

On June 16, 1909, Charles E. Hughes, Jr., son of the 
governor of New York State, and president of his class, 
was graduated at Brown University. A few weeks 
earlier he had been suddenly seized with a violent at- 
tack of the same disease — cerebrospinal meningitis. 
When some of the fluid around his spinal cord was re- 
moved by "lumbar puncture"— that is, puncture of the 
spinal canal in the small of the back by a hypodermic 
needle — there settled to the bottom of the test-tube a 
half inch of pure pus ("matter"). No medical man 
familiar with this terrible disease would have thought 
it possible that he could recover when such a condition 
existed. But in 1907, midway between the death of 
Dr. C. and the case of young Hughes, Drs. Flexner and 
Jobling, of the Eockefeller Institute, had discovered 
by researches on animals alone a serum against this 
disease. Three doses of this serum were administered 
also by "lumbar puncture" to young Hughes. Within 
twenty-four hours after the first dose his temperature 
fell to normal. The pus disappeared after the second 
dose and he soon recovered and was able to take his 
degree in the presence of his proud father. The trag- 
edy in the case of Dr. C. was averted, a useful life was 
spared, and a family made happy. 

GREAT DECREASE IN MORTALITY FROM CEREBROSPINAL 
MENINGITIS 

In discovering this serum Dr. Flexner experimented 
on twenty-five monkeys and one hundred guinea-pigs. 
Many of these animals themselves had been cured by 
the use of the serum. Having, therefore, found it ef- 
fective in animals he proceeded to test it on human be- 
ings. Before the introduction of the serum, medicine 
was almost helpless. Whatever treatment was adopted 
seventy-five to ninety patients out of one hundred were 
sure to die. In two years this serum has been used in 
this country and in Europe in about one thousand cases. 
In these one thousand cases the mortality has dropped 
to thirty, twenty, ten, and even to seven in a hundred. 
If we take the mortality of the days before the serum 
treatment was used at 75 per cent., and the mortality 
since it was discovered at 25 per cent., there is a clear 
saving of 500 human lives ! 



Not only have 500 human lives been saved in these 
first one thousand cases, but for all time to come in 
every thousand 500 more human lives will be saved. 

Moreover, we must not forget that these thousands 
who would die were it not for Dr. Flexner's serum had 
families and friends who would have been filled with 
sorrow, and, in case it was the breadwinner of the fam- 
ily whose life was lost, would have had to suffer the 
deprivations and pangs of poverty. 

Let me now put a plain, straightforward, common- 
sense question. Which was the more cruel : Doctor 
Flexner and his assistants who operated on twenty-five 
monkeys and one hundred guinea-pigs with the pure 
and holy purpose of finding an antidote to a deadly 
disease and with the result of saving hundreds, and, in 
the future, of thousands on thousands of human lives; 
or the women who were "fanned into fury" in their op- 
position to all experiments on living animals at the 
Rockefeller Institute, "no matter how great the antici- 
pated benefit"? 

If these misguided women had had their way they 
would have nailed up the doors of the Rockefeller In- 
stitute, would have prevented these experiments on 125 
animals, and by doing so would have ruthlessly con- 
demned to death for all future time 500 human beings 
in every one thousand attacked by cerebrospinal menin- 
gitis ! 

If your son or daughter falls ill with this disease to 
whom will you turn for help — to Flexner or to the anti- 
vivisectionists ? 

Of these one hundred and twenty-five animals, as a 
rule those which died became unconscious in the course 
of a few hours and remained so for a few hours more 
till they died. They suffered but little. When they 
died they left no mourning families and friends. They 
left undone no deeds of service or of heroism to either 
their fellows or to the human race, as the human beings 
whose lives were rescued by their death may do. But 
these deluded women had their minds so centered on 
the sufferings of these one hundred and twenty-five 
animals that their ears were deaf and their hearts 
steeled against the woes and the sufferings of thousands 
of human beings, their families, and their friends. Is 
this common-sense? Are not human beings "of more 
value than many sparrows"? 



EXPERIMENTS IN SEWING BLOOD-VESSELS END-TO-END 

Less than two years ago their first baby was born to 
a young doctor and his wife in New York City. 
Scarcely was the child born before it began to bleed 
from the nose, the mouth, the gums, the stomach and 
the bowels. It was a case which we known as "hemor- 
rhage of the newborn," which attacks about one baby 
in every thousand. It is very frequently fatal, and in 
treating it up to that time physicians practically groped 
in the dark, trying one remedy after another, but, alas, 
too often in vain ! 

The bleeding continued. This poor little baby soon 
showed the pallor which accompanies severe, loss of 
blood. It lost all appetite, was suffering from high 
fever, and, finally, by the fourth day the physician in 
attendance told the parents frankly that the child could 
live only a few hours. Then, in the dead of the night 
the father wakened Dr. Carrel, one of the assistants in 
the Kockefeller Institute. The father lay down along- 
side of his firstborn. The artery of the pulse in the 
father's arm was laid bare and sewed end-to-end to a 
vein in his baby's leg, and the blood was allowed to flow 
from father to child. The result was most dramatic. 
A few minutes after the blood began to flow into the 
baby's veins, its white, transparent skin assumed the 
ruddy glow of health, the hemorrhage from every part 
of the body ceased instantly and never returned, and, 
as Dr. Samuel Lambert, who reports the case, puts it, 
there was no period of convalescene ; immediately before 
the operation the baby was dying; immediately after the 
operation it was well and strong and feeding with avid- 
ity. That baby to-day, after two years, as I know per- 
sonally, is a splendid specimen of a healthy child. 

Perhaps my readers may see nothing very wonderful 
in this, but we surgeons know that it is one of the most 
remarkable recent achievements in surgery. For many 
years we have been trying to devise a method by which 
we could sew severed blood-vessels end-to-end without 
danger to the patient. The difficulty has always been 
that, no matter what were the methods employed, the 
blood nearly always formed clots at the roughened ring 
where the two ends of the divided blood-vessel were 
sewed together. These clots passed up to the heart and 
into the lungs of the patient and produced pneumonia, 
so that the old method of transfusion of blood has been 



rv 

practically abandoned for years. Dr. Carrel worked 
out his new method on the blood-vessels of dead human 
beings, and, when it seemed to him to be satisfactory, 
put it to the proof on two living dogs, and then used it 
in living human beings. It is now in use everywhere. 

Moreover, Dr. Crile, of Cleveland, who has so splen- 
didly enlarged our means of coping with disease, has 
used the same method in another way. When patients 
come to him too weak to be operated on and ordinary 
tonics and food do not strengthen them, he has trans- 
fused the blood from husband, father or son, and thus 
given the patient sufficient strength to bear the opera- 
tion. He has used even a more striking method. For 
example when a woman has to be operated on — say for 
cancer of the breast — and is so weak that the shock, the 
anesthetic and the loss of blood would probably turn 
the scale against her, he has had the husband lie down 
alongside of her, has sewed the artery of the pulse of 
the husband to a vein in his wife's leg and allowed the 
blood to flow. In a few minutes, when she has become 
strong enough, he has etherized her and proceeded with 
the operation, starting or stopping the flow of blood 
according to the varying needs of the patient. At the 
end of the operation, through the new life-blood that 
has been given her, the patient has been in better con- 
dition than when the operation began. These methods, 
too, are now in successful use by other surgeons. 

Let me again put the plain, straightforward, com- 
mon-sense question : Who is the more cruel : Dr. Car- 
rel, in devising this life-saving method of transfusion 
of blood by experimenting on two living dogs, and sav- 
ing through himself and other surgeons scores of lives 
already, and even thousands in the future; or the 
women who would shackle him, shut up the Eockefeller 
Institute and thrust these poor patients into their 
graves? Does not the work of Drs. Flexner, Jobling 
and Carrel and their assistants not only justify the ex- 
istence of the Eockefeller Institute, but also bid us tell 
them Godspeed in their mission of mercy, and give 
them and those engaged in similar blessed work all 
over the world our confidence, encouragement and aid? 
Is it just, is it fair, is it Christian to call such an insti- 
tution a "hell at close range," as the Eockefeller Insti- 
tute is called in a pamphlet written by a woman and 
distributed by antivivisectionists ? 



ANTISEPTIC EXPERIMENTS WERE FIRST TRIED ON 
ANIMALS 

I suppose that in this day of general intelligence 
scarcely any person, if he or she had to submit to an 
operation, would be willing to have it done by a sur- 
geon who did not use antiseptic methods. These 
methods we owe to Lord Lister of London, still living 
in his eighty-third year. Few of my readers, however, 
know how enormous the contrast is between the days 
before Lister's discoveries and the present. I was grad- 
uated in medicine in 1862. The antiseptic method was 
adopted by various surgeons, we may say roughly, be- 
tween the years 1875 and 1880. Prior to 1876 I prac- 
ticed the old surgery, but ever since then the new anti- 
septic method. I passed through the horrible surgery 
of the Civil War, when blood-poisoning, erysipelas, lock- 
jaw, hospital gangrene and all the other fearful septic 
conditions were every-day affairs. In five hundred and 
five cases of lockjaw during the Civil War four hundred 
and fifty-one patients died. In wounds of the intestines 
the mortality was ninety-nine out of a hundred. In 
sixty-six cases of amputation at the hip-joint fifty-five 
patients died. In one hundred and fifty-five cases of 
trephining ninety-five patients died. After the war for 
some years I was an assistant of Dr. Washington L. 
Atlee. A more careful surgeon I never saw, but two out 
of every three of his patients died. There are now many 
surgeons who can show series of hundreds and even 
thousands of cases of ovariotomy and other abdominal 
operations with a mortality of only five in a hundred, 
and some of only one in a hundred. After "clean" oper- 
ations — that is, with no "matter" present — blood-poison- 
ing, lockjaw and erysipelas are well-nigh unknown, and 
I have not seen a single case of hospital gangrene in the 
thirty-five years since I adopted the antiseptic method. 

One of the most common operations is amputation of 
the breast for cancer, in which now we do far more ex- 
tensive operations than formerly. These operations are 
followed by permanent cure in more than one-half of 
the patients operated on early, and rarely more than one 
or two women in every hundred die. Eecovery also fol- 
lows in a few days and not seldom with but little pain, 
instead of several weeks or even months of great suffer- 
ing as before the days of antisepsis. 



All of this wonderful improvement we owe to Lord 
Lister and the new science of bacteriology which treats 
of "bacteria" or "germs." Both Lister's work and that 
of the bacteriologist are and must be absolutely founded 
finally on experiments on animals. The laboratory was 
of use, but, in order to be absolutely certain that he was 
right he had to experiment on a few animals — the only 
possible way of achieving positive knowledge. 

Who, I ask, are the more humane : Lord Lister and 
other surgeons who have made these life-giving, pain- 
saving experiments on animals, or those who — if they 
had succeeded in the past in prohibiting such experi- 
ments — would have compelled surgeons in 1910 to con- 
tinue to use the same old, horrible, dirty methods of 
surgery as in the days before Lister, and thus to offer 
up hecatombs of human lives to the Moloch of antivivi- 
section? Which method will any man of common sense 
or any woman with a human heart choose ? 

HOW THE SCOUEGE OF MOTHEEHOOD HAS BEEX BANISHED 

Even in surgery it is doubtful if a more wonderful im- 
provement has been realized than in our maternity hospi- 
tals and in private obstetric practice as a direct result 
of the work of Pasteur and Lister. Well do I remember 
as a young man every now and then an outbreak of that 
frightful and fatal puerperal or "child-bed" fever in our 
maternity hospitals. Almost every woman who then en- 
tered such a hospital was doomed to suffer an attack of 
the fever, and its mortality sometimes ran up to seventy- 
five, or even more, out of every hundred mothers. Often 
such hospitals had to be closed till the then unknown 
poison disappeared. Not a few obstetricians had to quit 
practice entirely for weeks because every woman they at- 
tended fell ill of the disease and many, many died. Fin- 
ally Pasteur appeared on the field. In 1878, in a discus- 
sion on puerperal fever at the Paris Academy of Medi- 
cine, after a member had eloquently discussed various 
alleged causes of these epidemics, Pasteur interrupted 
him and said : "All this has nothing to do with the cause 
of these epidemics. It is the doctors who transport the 
microbe from a sick woman to a healthy woman." When 
the speaker responded that he feared they would never 
find this microbe Pasteur immediately advanced to the 
blackboard, drew the picture of what we know as the 
"streptococcus" and said: "This is the cause of the 



10 

disease." This recognition of the streptococcus as the 
cause of puerperal fever and the consequent adoption 
of antiseptic methods have practically abolished puer- 
peral fever and reduced the mortality in maternity cases 
to less than one in a hundred. 

All this we owe absolutely to experiment on animals. 
Nothing else could have given us the knowledge. Even 
the horrible experiments that were being made by doc- 
tors who were ignorantly spreading the poison all 
around them, even these were not sufficient to open our 
eyes to the real cause of the disease. The laboratory 
test-tubes and experiments on animals were the chief 
means by which this scourge of motherhood has been 
banished. 

EXPERIMENTS ON MAN HAVE VANQUISHED YELLOW 
FEVER 

In addition to all these another fearful disease, yel- 
low fever, has also been abolished by experiment which 
was necessary for the final convincing proof. I need 
not repeat at length the frightful ravages of this ter- 
rible pestilence in days gone by. Cuba was never free 
from it for nearly two centuries until the American 
Commission showed how to get rid of it. The Panama 
Canal Zone had perhaps the worst reputation in the 
world as a graveyard for strangers, and now for four 
years not a single case of yellow fever has originated 
there ! Colonel Gorgas has made the Panama Canal a 
possibility. 

I wish that every one might read that most interest- 
ing little book, "Walter Eeed and Yellow Fever," by 
Dr. Howard A. Kelly, and see the wonderful methods 
by which this scourge of humanity has been abolished. 
When one thinks of the enormous difficulties of the 
problem the wonder is that it was ever solved. There 
are about 400 hundred varieties of mosquito. Only 
one of them carries the poison of yellow fever. Of this 
variety only the female carries the poison, and this 
female mosquito must have bitten a patient sick with 
yellow fever during the first three days of his illness, 
or she could not become infected. Moreover, after in- 
fection, the poison, whatever it is, does not develop in 
the body of the female mosquito for about twelve days. 
These facts were thought to be true, but there was no 



11 

positive proof. A very large number, perhaps the ma- 
jority, of yellow-fever experts still believed that the 
disesase was carried in clothing, bedding, etc. To dis- 
prove this experiments were tried first of all by doctors 
on themselves. They slept in the beds in which yellow- 
fever patients had died, and in their very clothes, night 
after night — clothes soiled with their black vomit, 
urine and feces. At other times doctors have actually 
swallowed the black vomit, tried to inoculate themselves 
by putting some of it into their eyes, by hypodermic 
injections, etc., in the vain attempt to discover the 
cause of the disease and the means by which it was 
spread, hoping in this way to discover the means of 
preventing it. Surely self-sacrifice could go no further. 
Yes, it could go further. One more step was requisite. 
The only way to give the absolute final proof was for 
a well man to be bitten by a mosquito known to be in- 
fected. Dr. Carroll, of the United States Army, was 
the first one who offered himself. Other men followed 
— doctors, soldiers and others. Several lost their lives, 
among them Dr. Lazear at the beginning of a most 
promising career. His tablet in the Johns Hopkins 
Hospital, in the fine words written by President Eliot, 
records that "With more than the courage and the de- 
votion of the soldier he risked and lost his life to show 
how a fearful pestilence is communicated and how its 
ravages may be prevented." 

It is often said that such experimental work brutal- 
izes men. Let us read a letter from Dr. Eeed to his 
wife, remembering, also, that the same high and holy 
purposes animate Doctors Flexner, Carrol, Crile and 
other experimenters : 

Quemado, Cuba, 11:50 p. m., Dec. 31, 1900. 
Only ten minutes of the old century remain. Here have 
I been sitting, reading that most wonderful book, "LaRoche 
on Yellow Fever," written in 1853. Forty-seven years later 
it has been permitted to me and my assistants to lift the 
impenetrable veil that has surrounded the causation of this 
most wonderful, dreadful pest of humanity and to put it on 
a rational and scientific basis. I thank God that this has 
been accomplished during the latter days of the old century. 
May its cure be wrought out in the early days of the new! 
The prayer that has been mine for twenty years, that I might 
be permitted in some way or at some time to do something 
to alleviate human suffering, has been granted! 



3S554 



V 



12 

This prayer of Beed — that its cure might be wrought 
out in the new, the twentieth century — has been abund- 
antly realized and yellow fever is now a vanquished foe. 

Unfortunately, the lower animals cannot be infected 
with yellow fever. If they could be Lazear and the 
other victims would have been saved. But they, yield- 
ing up their lives as leaders of a forlorn hope in the 
battle against disease, have made it possible to free the 
world from this dreadful scourge. Never was there a 
finer exhibition of courage! 

WHY MODERN" SURGERY IS SUCCESSFUL IN BRAIN DIS- 
ORDERS 

A few years ago I was called to Annapolis to see a 
young man who had been injured in a football game. 
He was evidently swiftly going to his grave. He had 
certain peculiar symptoms, which, in the light of cere- 
bral localization — that is, the fact that certain definite 
portions of the surface of the brain have each a certain 
definite function — I believed to be due to a clot of blood 
inside of his head above his left ear. There was a bruise, 
not above the ear, but at the outer end of the left eyebrow. 
Before 1885 I should have opened his skull under the 
bruise — apparently the almost certain point of injury — 
would have failed to find the clot, and he would surely 
have died. Instead of this I made a trap-door opening 
3 inches away from this bruise, removed nine table- 
spoonfuls of clotted blood, closed the wound so that his 
skull was as firm as ever, and he recovered, continued 
his studies, was graduated from the Naval Academy. 
Lately he has heroically given up his life at the call of 
duty. Had it not been for experiments on animals 
which had definitely fixed certain spots in the brain as 
the centers for movements of the hand, arm, shoulder, 
head, face, etc., it would have been utterly impossible 
for me to save his life. This is but one of hundreds of 
similar cases in which modern surgery deals with tumors 
of the brain, hemorrhage inside of the skull and many 
other disorders, and deals with them successfully. 

THE GREAT BLESSINGS OE ANTITOXIN IN DIPTHERIA 

I have heard the following pitiful story from one of 
my colleagues. He and a young mother stood by the 
bedside of her only child. The child, in the throes of 
diphtheria, was clutching at its throat and gasping 



13 

vainly for breath. Suddenly the mother flung herself 
on the floor at the doctor's feet in an agony of tears, en- 
treating him to save her child. But alas ! it was impos- 
sible. Had this case ocurred a few years later, however, 
when the blessed antitoxin for diphtheria had been dis- 
covered (solely by animal experimentation), this remedy 
would have been given early ; and almost certainly within 
a few hours the membrane would have softened and dis- 
appeared, and that life, precious beyond rubies, might 
have been saved. 

In those early dreadful days the only comfort we 
could give such distracted mothers — possibly some of 
them may read these very lines — was that "it was God's 
will." Yes ! Then, possibly, it was God's will ; but now, 
thank God, it is not His will. One might as well say 
it is God's will that thousands should die from small- 
pox when vaccination will protect them ; that other thou- 
sands should die from typhoid fever when a pure water- 
supply and the banishment of the fly will prevent it; 
that thousands of women should die from puerperal 
fever when sterile hands and sterile instruments will 
save them ! 

Let me give a table of some official reports showing 
in nineteen American and European cities the mortality 
in every 100,000 inhabitants from diphtheria in 1891 — 
that is to say, before the use of the antitoxin of diph- 
theria — and in 1905, when its use had become general. 
Being official and from ninteen cities in America and 
Europe, its accuracy can hardly be assailed. 

TABLE OF MORTALITY FROM DIPHTHERIA 

Per 100,000 Inhabitants. 

1894. 1905. 

New York 158 38 

Philadelphia 128 32 

Baltimore 50 20 

Boston 180 22 

Brooklyn 173 43 

Pittsburg-. 64 26 

London 66 12.2 

Paris ' 40 6 

Vienna 114 19 

These nine and ten other large cities taken together 
average as follows; in 1894, 79.9, and in 1905, 19, per 
100,000 inhabitants — that is to say, in these nineteen 
cities the average death rate in 1905 was less than one- 
fourth of the rate before the introduction of the serum 
treatment. 



14 



VIVISECTION IS NEVER UNNECESSARILY CRUEL 

The alleged atrocities so vividly described in antivivi- 
section literature are fine instances of "yellow journal- 
ism," and the quotations from medical men are often 
misleading. Thus, Sir Frederick Treves, the eminent 
English surgeon, is quoted as an opponent of vivisection 
in general. In spite of a denial published seven years 
ago the quotation still does frequent duty. I know per- 
sonally and intimately Horsley, Ferrier, Carrel, Flex- 
ner, Crile, Cushing and others, and I do not know men 
men who are kinder and more lovable. That they would 
be guilty of deliberate cruelty I would no more believe 
than that my own brother would have been. 

Moreover, I have seen their experiments, and can vouch 
personally for the fact that they give to these animals 
exactly the same care that I do to a human being. Were 
it otherwise their experiments would fail and utterly 
discredit them. Whenever an operation would be pain- 
ful an anesthetic is always given. This is dictated not 
only by humanity, but by two other valid considerations : 
first, long and delicate operations cannot be done prop- 
erly on a struggling, fighting animal any more than they 
could be done on a struggling fighting human being, 
and so again their experiments would be failures; and 
second, should any one try an experiment without giv- 
ing ether he would soon discover that dogs have teeth 
and cats have claws. Moreover, it will surprise many 
of my readers to learn that of the total number of ex- 
periments done in one year in England 97 per cent, 
were hypodermic injections and only 3 per cent, could 
be called painful ! 

If any one will read the report of the recent British 
Eoyal commission on Vivisection "he would find," says 
Lord Cromer, "that there was not a single case of ex- 
treme and unnecessary cruelty brought forward by the 
Antivivisection Society which did not hopelessly break 
down under cross-examination." 

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH IS OUR DUTY 

In view of what I have written above — and many 
times as much could be added — is it any wonder that 
I believe it to be a common-sense, a scientific, a moral 
and a Christian duty to promote experimental research? 
To hinder it, and, still more, to stop it would be a 
crime against the human race itself, and also against 



15 

animals, which have benefited almost as much as man 
from these experiments. 

What do our antivivisection friends propose as a sub- 
stitute? Nothing except clinical — that is, bedside — 
and post-mortem observations. These have been in use 
for two thousand years and have not given us results 
to be compared for a moment with the results gained 
by experimental research in the last fifty, or even the 
last twenty-five years. 

Finally, compare what the friends and the foes o*f 
research have done within my own professional life- 
time. The friends of research have given us antiseptic 
surgery and its wonderful results in every region and 
organ of the body; have abolished, or nearly abolished, 
lockjaw, blood-poisoning, erysipelas, hydrophobia, yel- 
low fever; have taught us how to make maternity al- 
most absolutely safe; how to reduce the mortality of 
diphtheria and cerebrospinal meningitis to one-fourth 
and one-third of their former death-rate, and have 
saved thousands of the lower animals from their own 
special diseases. 

What have the foes of research done for humanity? 
Held meetings, called the friends of research many bad 
names and spread many false and misleading state- 
ments. Not one disease has been abolished, not one 
has had its mortality lessened, not a single human life 
has been saved by anything they have done. On the 
contrary, had they had their way, puerperal fever and 
the other hideous diseases named above, and many 
others, would still be stalking through the world, slay- 
ing young and old, right and left — and the antivivisec- 
tionists would rightly be charged with this cruel result. 



OTHER PAMPHLETS OF INTEREST TO 
THE PUBLIC 



MEDICAL INSTITUTES 
The Wisconsin Medical Institute, of Milwaukee. 
The Boston Medical Institute or The Bellevue 
Medical Institute, of Chicago. 

The Epileptic Institute Company, of Cincinnati. 

CONSUMPTION AND CANCER CURES 

Aicsol, of St. Louis. 

The International Institute, of Chicago. 

Nature's Creation, of Columbus. 

"Rupert Wells," of St. Louis. Also in the same 
pamphlet, the Wilson Consumption Cure and the 
Soluble Sulphur Company. Illustrated. 

A Trio of Cancer Fakes : Dealing with the Dr. 
Curry Cancer Cure Company of Lebanon, Ohio, the 
Dr. Benjamin P. Bye Sanitarium of Indianapolis, 
Ind., and Dr. L. T. Leach of Indianapolis. Illustrated. 

A Duo of Cancer Fakes : Dealing with Dr. and 
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Kansas City. Illustrated. 

Toxo-Absorbent Company of Rochester. Illustrated. 

MISCELLANEOUS 
The Viavi Treatment, of San Francisco. 
The American College of Mechan'o-Therapy, of 
Chicago. 



Prices of All Above, assorted as desired : One copy, 
4 cents; five copies, 15 cents; ten copies, 25 cents; 
twenty-five copies, 50 cents, all post-paid. 



The Boy's Venereal Peril : A carefully-written, 
plain-speaking, uplifting letter to boys, which will 
inform them on sexual matters and guard them from 
bad habits and disease. 32 pages, 4 cents ; ten copies, 
35 cents, post-paid ; 100 copies express collect, $2.50. 

The Great American Fraud, by Samuel Hopkins 
, Adams. Articles on the Nostrum Evil and Quacks. 
Reprinted from Collier's Weekly. Paper cover. 65 
illustrations. 170 pages. Prices : One copy, 10 
cents ; five copies, 40 cents ; fourteen copies, $1.00, 
all post-paid. Cloth bound edition, 25 cents. 

Stamps acceptable for amounts under fifty cents. 

AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 
535 Dearborn Avenue. Chicago, Illinois 




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